The unification of England and Wales

NB There was no formal Act of Union between England and Wales but the 1535 Act below was the most important  piece of legislation in the piecemeal process of  administrative incorporation of Wales into England which took place  in the latter years of Henry XIII.

An Acte for Lawes & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme.                                   

Wales incorporated with England; and so declared; with like Liberties, &c. to Subjects born there as in England; Laws of Inheritance and other English Laws extended to Wales.Albeit the Domynyon Principalitie and Countrey of Wales justly and rightuouslye is and ever hath ben incorporated annexed united and subjecte to & under the Imperiall Crowne of this Realme, as a verrye membre and joynte of the same, [X2 Wherfore] the Kinges moost Roiall Magestie of mere droite and verye right is verie hedde King Lorde and Ruler, yet notwithstanding by cause that in the same Countrey Principalitie and Dominion dyvers rightes usagis lawes and customes be farre discrepant frome the Lawes and Customes of this Realme, And also by cause that the people of the same Dominion have and do daily use a speche nothing like ne consonaunt to the naturall mother tonge used within this Realme, somme rude and ignorant people have made distinccion and diversitie betwene the Kinges Subjectes of this Realme and hys Subjectes of the said Dominion and Principalitie of Wales, wherby greate discorde variaunce debate dyvysion murmur and sedicion hath growen betwene his said subjectes; His Highnes therfore of a singuler zele love and favour that he beareth towardes his Subjectes of his said Dominion of Wales, mynding and entending to reduce them to the perfecte order notice & knowlege of his lawes of this his Realme, and utterly to extirpe all and singuler the senister usages and customes differinge frome the same, and to bringe his said Subjectes of this his Realme and of his said Dominion of Wales to an amicable concorde and unitie, Hath by the deliberate advise consent and agreament of the Lordes spirituall and temporall and the Commons in this present ( X3 ) assembled and by the auctoritie of the same, ordeyned enacted and establisshed that his said Countrey or Dominion of Wales shalbe stonde and contynue for ever incorporated united and annexed to and with this his Realme of Englande; And that all and singuler personne and personnes borne and to be borne in the said Principalitie Countrey or Dominion of Wales, shall have enjoye and inherite all and singuler fredomes liberties rightes privileges and lawes within this Realme and other the Kynges Dominions as other the Kinges Subjectes naturally borne within the same, have enjoye and enherite: And that all and singular personne and personnes inheritable to any Manours Landes Tenements Rentes Revercions services or other Hereditaments, which shall discende within the set Principalitie, Countrey or Dominion of Wales, or within any particuler Lordshippe parte or parcell of the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales, shall forever inherite and be inheritable to the same Manours Landes Tenementes Rentes Revercions and Hereditamentes after the Englisshe tenure, without division or particion, and after the forme of the Lawes of this Realme of Englande, and not after any ( X4 ) tenure ne after the fourme of any Welshe Lawes or Customes; And that the Lawes Ordynaunces and Statutes of this Realme of Englande for ever, and none other Lawes Ordenaunces ne Statutes, shalbe had used practised & executed in the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales and every parte therof, in like manner and forme and order as they ben and shalbe had used practised and executed in this Realme, and in such like manner and forme as hereafter by this acte shalbe further establisshed and ordeyned; any acte statute usage custome president libertie privilege or other thing, had made used graunted or suffred to the contrary, in any wise notwithstanding.

II.

Lordships Marchers in Wales; and the Disorders committed therein: Such Lordships Marchers annexed to, or divided into certain Shires. Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Monmouth. Monmouth the Shire Town.And forasmoche as there be many and dyvers Lordshippes Marchers within the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales lieng betwene the Shires of Englande and the Shires of the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales, . . . F1 and for asmoche as dyvers and many of the said Lordeshippes Marchers be nowe in the handes and possession of our Soveraigne Lorde the Kinge, and the smallest nombre of them in the possession of other Lordes, It is therefore enacted by thauctoritie aforesaid that dyvers of the said Lordeshippes Marchers shalbe united annexed & joyned to dyvers of the Shires of Englande, And dyvers of the said Lordshippes Marchers shalbe united annexed and joyned to dyvers of the Shires of the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales in manner and forme hereafter followyng; And that all the residue of the said Lordeshippes Marchars within the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales shalbe severed and devyded into certayne perticular Counties or Shires, that is to say; The Countie or Shire of Monimouth, the Countie or Shire of Brekenoke, the Countie or Shire of Radnore, the Countie or Shire of Montgomery, the Countie or Shire of Denbigh: And that the Lordshippes Towneshippes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes of Monimouth Chepstowe Matherne Llanmyhangell Magour Goldcliffe Newporte Wenloge Llanwerne Caerlion Uske Trelecke Tynterne Skynfreth Grousmonte White Castell Reglan Calicote Byston Abergevenny Penrose Grenefeld Maghen and Hochnyslade, in the said Countrey of Wales, and all and singuler Honours Lordshipps Castells Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the compasse or precincte of the said Lordshippes Towneshippes Hamlettes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes and every of them, in whos possession so every they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stand and be, Gildable and shalbe reputed accepted named and taken as parte and membres of the said Shire of Monimouthe: And that the said Towne of Monimounte shalbe named accepted reputed used had and taken [X5 heed] and Shire Towne of the said Countie or Shire of Monimouthe

III.

The Subjects there shall obey the King’s Justices, &c. The Sheriffs, Escheators, and Coroners shall execute and return Processes, and account as in England.. . . F3 And all and every the Kinges Subjectes and inhabitauntes within the said Countie of Monimouth shalbe for ever, obliged and bounden to be obedient and attendaunt to the Lorde Chauncellour of Englond the Kinges Justices and other of the Kinges moste honorable Counsaile, and unto all lawes customes ordenaunces and statutes of this Realme of England, in like maner fourme and wise as all other the Kinges Subjectes within every Shire of this Realme of England be obliged and bounden; any acte statute usage custome libertie privilege or any other thinge to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. . . . F3 And that the . . . F4 Eschetours and Coroners that hereafter shalbe within the said Countie or Shire of Monimouth shalbe obliged and bounden to execute all the Kinges processes, and to make due retornes thereof, and to use and exercise their offices according to the Lawes and Statutes of this Realme of England, in all and everything as the . . . F4 Eschetours and Coroners be obliged and bounden to do in all and every other Shire of this Realme of England; . . .

IV.

Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Brecknock. County Town.And that the Lordshipps Townes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes of Brekenoke Crekehowell Tretowre Penkelly Englisshe Talgarth Welsshe Talgarth Dynas The Haye Glynebogh Broynlles Cantercely Llando Blaynllynby Estrodewe Buelthe and Llangors in the said Countrey or Dominion of Wales, and all and singuler Honours Lordshippes Castells Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes or any of them, in whos possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stand and be forever, Gyldable, and shalbe reputed accepted named and taken as parties and membres of the said Countie or Shire of Brekenok; and the said Towne of Brekenok shalbe named accepted reputed used had and taken hede and Shere Towne of the said Countie or Shere of Brekenok; . .

V.

Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Radnor. County Town.And that the Lordshipps Townships Parrisshes Commotes and Cantredes of Newe Radnore Glistherman Gluelles Roughred Glasebery Glawdistre Mighellis Churche Meleneth Blewagh Knyghton Norton Preston Comothuder Rayder Gwethronyon and Stanage in the said Countrey of Wales and every of theym, and all and singuler Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng and beyng within the compase or precincte of the said Lordshippes Towneshippes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes or any of theym, in whos possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stand & be for ever, Gyldable, and shalbe reputed accepted named and taken as partes and membres of the said Countie or Shire of Radnore; And that the saide Towne of Newe Radnore shall be named accepted reputed used had and taken hede and Shire Towne of the said Countie or Shire of Radnore; . . .

VI.

Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Montgomery. County Town.And that the Lordshipps Towneshipps Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes of Mountgomerey Kedewenkery Cawrsland Arnstely Kenyliock Doythure Powesland Climes Land Balesley Tempcestre and Alcestre in the said Countrey of Wales and every of them, and all and singuler Honours Lordeshipps Castels Manours Landes Tenementes & Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Parisshes Towneshippes Commotes and Cantredes or any of theym, in whos possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stand and be forever, Gyldable, and shalbe reputed accepted named and taken as partes and membres of the said Countie or Shire of Mountgomery; And that the said Towne of Mountgomery shal be named accepted reputed used had and taken hede and Shire Towne of the said Countie of Mountgomery; . . .

VII.

Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Denbigh. County Town.And that the Lordshippes Towneshippes Parisshes Commotes and Cantredes of Denbighland Ruthin Saint Tasse [X6 Knylletthowen] Bromfylde Yale Chierke and Chierkeland Molesdale and Hopesdale in the said Countrey of Wales, and every of them, and all and singuler Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the Compas or precincte of the said Lordshipps Towneshippes Commotis and and Cantredes or any of them, in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stonde and be for ever, Gyldable, and shalbe reputed accepted named and taken as partes and membres of the said Countie or Shire of Denbygh. And that the said Towne of Denbigh shalbe named accepted reputed used had and taken hede and Shire

VIII.

Administration of Justice in Brecknock, &c.. . . F9 And that Justice shalbe ministred used exercised and executed unto the Kinges Subjectes and inhabitauntes, in every of the said Shires of Brekenok Radnore Mountgomerie and Denbigh, according to the Lawes and Statutes of this Realme of Englande, . . . F9 , and after suche fourme and fasshion as Justice is used and ministred to the Kinges Subjectes within the there Shires of Northwales.

IX.

Lordships, Towns, &c. included in the County of Salop. Lordships of Oswestere, &c. Lordship of Ellesmore. Lordship of Downe. No exclusive Privileges to the said Lordships, &c.And that the Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes of Oswestre Whetington Masbroke Knoking Ellesmer Downe and Churbury Hundred, in the Marches of Wales aforesaid and every of them, and all and singuler Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Townes Hamlettes Landes Tenementes & Hereditaments lieng or beyng within the compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of them, in whos possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof, shall stande and be, for ever, Gyldable, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the Countie of Salopp as a membre parte or parcell of the same. And that the said Lordshippes of Oswestere Whetington Masbroke and Knokinge with thir membres shalbe taken named and knowen by the name of the Hundred of Oswester in the Countie of Salopp, And the Inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thinge & thinges at every Sessions Assise and Gaole delyverey to be holden wythin the Countie of Salopp as the inhabitauntes of all other Hundreds do within the said Countie of Salopp according to the Lawes of this Realme of England. And that the Lordshippe of Ellesmere with the membres of the same shalbe united joyned and knyte to the Hundred of Pymhill in the Countie of Salopp, and shalbe taken named and knowen to be parcell of the same Hundred, And the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thinge and thinges with the inhabitauntes of the said Hundred of Pymhill as the inhabitauntes of the same Hundred nowe do and use accordinge to the Lawes of this Realme of England. And that the Lordshippe of Downe with the membres shalbe united joyned and knytt to the hundred of Churbury in the Countie of Salopp; And that the inhabitauntes of the said Hundred of Churburye and Lordshippe of Downe shalbe attendaunt and do every thing and thinges at every Sessions Assise and Gaole delyverey to be holden within the said Countie of Salopp, as the inhabitauntes of all other hundredes do within the same Countie of Salopp according to the Lawes of this Realme of England: And that the said Hundred of Churbury, nor the said Hundred of Oswestre, nor yet the Lordshippe of Ellesmere, shalbe in nowise otherwise privileged nor have no other libertie nor privilege but as hundreds united annexed & knytte to the said Countie of Salopp, as other hundreds be within the said Countie.

X.

Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Hereford. Lordship of Wigmore, &c. Lordship of Ewyas Lacey. Lordship of Ewias Harrold. Lordships of Clifford, &c. No exclusive Privileges to the said Lordships, &c.And that the Lordshipps Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundreds and Cantredes of Ewyas Lacy Ewyas Harold Clifforde Wynforton Yerdesley Huntyngton Whitney Wygmore Logharneys and Stepleton, in the said Marches of Wales and every of theym, And all and singuler Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Londes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the compas or precincte of the said Lordshipppes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of theym, in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof shall stande and be forever, Gildable, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the Countie of Hereford as a membre parte or parcell of the same Countie of Hereford: And that the Lordshippes of Wigmore and Logharneys with thir membres shalbe taken named and knowen by the name of the Hundrede of Wigmore in the Countie of Hereford aforesaid; And that the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thynge and thinges at every Sessions Assise and Gaole delyverey to be holden within the said Countie of Hereforde, as the inhabitaunts of all other Hundreds do within the said Countie of Hereford according to the Lawes of this Realme of Englond: And that the hole Lordshippe of Ewyas Lacy with the membres shalbe taken named and knowen by the name of the Hundred of Ewias Lacy within the said Countie of Hereford; And the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thinge and thinges at every Sessions Assise and Gaole delyverey to be holden within the said Countie of Hereford as the inhabitauntes of all other Hundreds do within the said Countie of Hereford according to the Lawes of this Realme of England: And that the Lordshippe of Ewias Harrold with the Membres shalbe united joyned and knytte to the Hundred of Webtre in the said Countie of Hereford and shalbe taken named and knowen to be parcell of the said Hundred of Webtre; And the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thing and thinges with the inhabitauntes of the same Hundred of Webtre, as the inhabitauntes of the same Hundred nowe do according to the Lawes of this Realme of Englond: And that the Lordshippes of Clifforde Wynforton Yerdesley Whitney and Huntyngton with their membres shalbe taken named and knowen by the name of the Hundred of Huntyngton within the Countie of Hereford aforsaid; And that the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thinge and thinges at every Sessions Assise and Gaole delyverey to be holden within the said Countie of Hereford as the inhabitauntes of all other Hundreds do within the said Countie of Hereford according to the Lawes of this Realme of England: And that the said Hundred of Wigmore with the Membres, and the said Hundred of Ewias Lacy, and the said Hundred of Huntyngton, and the said Lordshippe of Ewias Harold, annexed to the Hundred of Webtree shalbe in no wise otherwise pryvileged nor have no other libertie franches ne privilege but as Hundredes united and annexed to the said Countie of Hereforde, and as other Hundredes be within the said Countie of Hereford.

XI.

Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Gloucester. Lordships of Wollaston, &c. No exclusive Privilege to those Lordships.And that the Lordshippes Townes and Parisshes of Wollaston Tidnam and Becheley in the said Marches of Wales, and all Honours Lordshippes Castelles Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes, lienge or beyng betwene Chepstowe Bridge in the said Marches of Wales and Gloucestershire, in whose possession so ever they bee or shalbe and every parte therof shall stand and be Gildable, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the said Countie or Shire of Gloucester as a membre parte or parcell of the same; And that the said Lordshippes Townes and Parisshes of Wollaston Tidnam and Becheley, and all Honours Lordshippes Castelles Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lienge or beynge betwene Chepstowe Bridge and the Shire of Gloucester as is aforesaid, shalbe united joyned and knytt to the Hundred of Wesebery within the said Shere of Gloucester, and shalbe taken named and knowen to be parte and parcell of the same Hundred, and the inhabitauntes therof shalbe attendaunt and do every thinge and thinges with the inhabitauntes of the said Hundred of Wesebery as the inhabitauntes of the same Hundred nowe do according to the lawes of this Realme of England: And that the said Lordshippes of Wollaston Tidnam and Becheley, shalbe in no wise pryvyleged nor have no other libertie franches ne privilege but as parcell of the said Hundred of Wesebery in the said Countie of Gloucester.

XII.

Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Glamorgan; and subjected to the English Laws.And that the Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes of Gowerkylvey Bysshoppes Towne Landaffe [X7 Synghnythe] supra [X7 Synghnyth] subtus Miskyn Ogmore Glynerotheney Tallagarne Ruthien Tallavan Lanblethyan Lantwyd Tyerall Anan Nethe Landewey and the Clayes, in the said Countrey of Wales and every of them, and all Honours Lordshippes Castelles Manours Landes Tenementes & Hereditaments lienge or beyng within the compas or precincte of the said Lordships Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of them, in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe and every parte therof, shall stand and be Gildable for ever, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the Countie of Glamorgan as a membre parte or parcell of the same: And that the said Shire of Glamorgan and Morganok and all the aforsaid Lordshipps Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundreds Cantredes, united and annexed to the said Countie of Glamorgan, shall be reputed named accepted and knowen by the name of the Shire of Glamorgan only and by none other name; And that Justice shalbe ministred and executed to the Kynges Subjectes and inhabitauntes of the said Countie of Glamorgan according to the Lawes Customes and Statutes of this Realme of Englond, and after no Welsshe Lawes, and in suche fourme and fasshion as justice is ministred and used to the Kinges Subjectes within the thre Shires of North Wales.

XIII.

Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Kayermarthen, and subjected to the English Laws.And that the Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundreds and Cantredes of Lanemthevery Abermerlese Kedewely Eskennyn Corne Wolthon Newcastell Emlyn Abergoylly in the said Countrey of Wales, and every of them and all Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the Compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of theym, in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe and every parte therof, shall stand and be Gildable for ever, and shalbe united [X8 anned] and joyned to and with the Countie of Kayermerthen, as a membre parte or parcell of the same; And that Justice shalbe ministred and executed to the Kinges Subjectes and inhabitauntes of the said Countie of Kaermerden according to the Lawes Customes and Statutes of this Realme of Englande, and after no Welsshe Lawes, and in suche forme and fasshion as Justice is ministred and used to the Kinges Subjectes within the Three Sheres of Northwales.

XIV.  Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Pembroke, and subjected to the English Laws.And that the Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes of Haverfordwest Kilgarran Lansteffan Langeharne otherwise called Tallangherne Walwynscastell Dewysland Lannehadeyn Lanfey Nerberth Slebeyche Rosemarkett Castellan and Llandofloure in the said Countrey of Wales, and every of theym and all Honours Lordshipps Castels Manours Londes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng and beyng within the Compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of theym, in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe, and every parte therof shall stand and be Gildable forever, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the Countie of Pembroke; and that Justice shalbe ministred and executed to the Kinges Subjectes and inhabitantes of the said Countie of Pembroche according to the Lawes Customes and Statutes of this Realme of Englond, and after no Walsshe Lawes, and in suche forme and fasshion as Justice is ministred and used to the Kinges Subjectes within the thre Shires of Northwales.

XV. Lordships, Towns, &c. annexed to the County of Cardigan, and subjected to the English Laws.And that the Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes of Tregaron Generglyn Landwyvreny in the said Countrey of Wales and every of theym, and all Honours Lordshippes Castels Manours Landes Tenementes and Hereditamentes lieng or beyng within the Compas or precincte of the said Lordshippes Townes Parisshes Commotes Hundredes and Cantredes or any of theym in whose possession so ever they be or shalbe and every parte therof, shall stand and be Gyldable for ever, and shalbe united annexed and joyned to and with the Countie of Cardigan as a membre parte or parcell of the same; And that Justice shalbe ministred and executed to the Kinges Subjectes and inhabitauntes of the said Countie of Cardygan according to the Lawes Customes and Statutes of this Realme of England, and after no Welshe Lawes, and in suche fomme and fasshion as Justice is ministred and used to the Kinges subjectes within the thre Shires of North Wales.

2 Responses to The unification of England and Wales

  1. Tony Hand says:

    Interested whether you think the unification of England and Wales was a good thing?

    • Strategically it was a good because France and Spain could have used it as a launching pad for an invasion of England and the Welsh tribes, although not posing a serious threat to the English monarchy and state in themselves, were a constant thorn in the flesh of mediaeval English kings through their alliances with foreign powers. The unification also meant that Ireland could be dealt with more readily. That was was the real utility of the unification, security of borders, the same consideration which drove the unification of 1707.

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